重要公告 (Announcement)

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Wednesday, August 15, 2018

Sixth International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures (ICDCS2018) Wednesday 18 – Friday 20 July 2018.


https://engineering.leeds.ac.uk/icdcs2018


"In summary, 157 delegates from 32 countries contributed to the success of the event"

Table of Contents


Plenary Papers

The performance of concrete in a marine environment
M.D.A. Thomas and E.G. Moffatt, University of New Brunswick, Canada

1
Alkali-activated cements and concretes – durability testing to underpin standardisation
J.L. Provis, The University of Sheffield, UK

16

Keynote Papers

Service life and life-cycle assessment of reinforced concrete with fly ash and limestone calcined clay cement
R. Gettu, R.G. Pillai, M. Santhanam, S. Rathnarajan, A.S. Basavaraj, S. Rengaraju, and D.Yuvaraj,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India

27
Guiding principles in developing the South African approach to durability index testing of concrete
Y. Ballim, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa; M.G. Alexander, University of Cape Town,
South Africa

36
Estimated service life of carbonation exposed (cracked) concrete with pozzolans or self-healing agents
P. Van den Heede and N. De Belie, Ghent University, Belgium

46
fib Model Code 2020 – durability design and through life management of new and existing structures
F. Papworth, Building and Construction Research and Consultancy, Western Australia; S. Matthews,
Building Research Establishment Ltd, UK

53
The bond behaviour between concrete and corroded reinforcement: state of the art
Y. Zhao, Zhejiang University, China; H. Lin, Tsinghua University, China

63
Analytical and quantitative aspects of surface moisture transport and plastic shrinkage cracking
B. Mobasher, Arizona State University, USA; M. Bakhshi, AECOM, USA; Y. Yao, Southeast University, China

74
Performance of RC slabs under the combined effect of applied loads and restrained shrinkage
M. Azenha, J.L. Granja, J. Gomes, R. Carvalho, B. Zahabizadeh and A. Edalat-Behbahani, University of Minho, Portugal; R. Faria, L. Leitão and C.F. Sousa, University of Porto, Portugal; D. Schlicke,
Graz University of Technology, Austria

83
Mesoscopic model of drying shrinkage and its application into control of shrinkage cracking
T. Nawa, Hokkaido University, Japan

95

Influence of Constituents of Concrete

Effects of temperature and curing duration on the stability of slag cements in combined chloride-sulphate environments 
J.O. Ukpata, P.A.M. Basheer and L. Black, University of Leeds, UK

105
Carbonation in alternative cementitious materials: implications on durability and mechanical properties
P. Alapati and K. E. Kurtis, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA

111
Compressive strength, free expansion and shrinkage of expansive concrete containing fly ash
W. Saengsoy, R. Chatchawan and S. Tangtermsirikul, Thammasat University, Thailand

120
Design of ternary blend high-volume fly ash concrete mixes using hydrated lime
C. Gunasekara, D.W. Law and S. Setunge, RMIT University, Australia

127
Internal curing by SAP in ultra-high strength concrete with cement-silica fume-fly ash binder
J. Liu and C. Shi, Hunan University, China; X. Ma, Henan University of Urban Construction, China


135
Impact of water content on the performance of alkali-activated slag concretes
S.A. Bernal and J.L. Provis, The University of Sheffield, UK; J.S.J. van Deventer, The University of Melbourne, Australia, and Zeobond Pty Ltd, Australia

143
Influence of sulfide on the onset of chloride-induced corrosion of steel reinforcement in alkali-activated slags
M. Criado, S. Mundra, S.A. Bernal and J.L. Provis, University of Sheffield, UK

149
Strength and durability of hybrid fibre reinforced binary blend geopolymer concrete
N. Ganesan, P.V. Indira and R. Sahana, National Institute of Technology, India

154
Comparison of lithomarge and cement-based mortars performance in aggressive aqueous environments
J. Kwasny, T.A. Aiken, M.N. Soutsos and D.J. Cleland, Queen’s University Belfast, UK; J.A. McIntosh,
banah UK Ltd, UK

160
A preliminary investigation into geopolymer cement mortar’s suitability for providing resilient highway solutions
B.J. Magee, A. Wilkinson, D. Woodward, S. Tretsiakova-McNally and P. Lemoine, Ulster University, UK

170
Enhancement of durability characteristics of geopolymer concrete with manufactured sand
M.I. Abul Aleem, PSG Institute of Technology and Applied Research, India; T. Shanmuga Priya, VIT University, India

178
The synergistic effect of nano-silica with slag on frost resistance of concrete
L. Yuan, Z. Zhou, P. Du, X. Cheng, P. Hou, L. Zhang and Q. Li, University of Jinan and Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Material, China

183
Effect of nanosilica on the sulfate attack resistivity of cement mortar 
P.K Hou, Z.H Guo, Q Yu, N Xie, X Cheng and S.P. Shah, University of Jinan, China

189
Transport properties and strength development of blended cement mortars containing nano-silica
A.A. Ramezanianpour, Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran; S. Mirvalad, Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran; M. Mortezaei, Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran

194
Long term permeability and acid resistance of self-compacting concretes with micro and nano mineral additions
G. Barluenga, C. Guardia,  University of Alcalá, Spain; J. Puentes, CSIC, Spain; N. Flores,
European University of Canarias, Spain

203
Durability properties of high performance concrete containing high volumes of supplementary cementitious materials
A. Elahi, University of Engineering and Technology Taxila, Pakistan; S.A. Barbhuiya,
Curtin University of Technology, Australia

210
Post-cracking behavior of cementitious composite incorporating nano-silica and basalt fiber pellets 
A.G. Bediwy, M.T. Bassuoni and E. El-Salakawy, University of Manitoba, Canada

220
Strength and durability performance of ultra-high-performance cementitious composite enhanced with carbon nanofibres
J.L.G. Lim, S.N. Raman, M.F.M. Zain and R. Hamid, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia; F.C. Lai, Bangunan PanGlobal, Malaysia

227
Polymer binder, impact on the pull-out force of macro fibers in sprayed concrete
K. Bonin and C. Neumaie, Wacker Chemie AG, Germany

233
Workability and freeze-thawing performance of fiber reinforced expansive self-consolidating concrete
Q. Cao and Q.Q. Gao, Dalian University of Technology, China

238
Performance of concrete made with a calcined clay – limestone-portland cement exposed to natural conditions
F. Martirena, E. Díaz and D. Rocha, Universidad Central de las Villas, Cuba; H. Maraghechi and K. Scrivener, Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne, Switzerland

244
Comparison of alkali-silica chemical reaction of reactive glass and chert aggregate
Y. Morinaga, E. Yogarajah and T. Nawa, Hokkaido University, Japan; L. Yorgchaitrakul, Thammasat University, Thailand; E. Iwatsuki, Aichi Institute of Technology, Japan

248
Influence of mineralogical nature of aggregates on acid resistance of mortar
K. P. Ramaswamy, TKM College of Engineering, India; M.  Santhanam, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India

256
Impact of portlandite on alkali-silica reaction of pyrex glass and blastfurnace slag aggregate
N. Noguchi, T. Kajio, Y. Morinaga, Y. Elakneswaran and T. Nawa, Hokkaido University, Japan; T. Ayan, Okayama University, Japan

267
Study of the deterioration of concrete incorporating sulfide-bearing aggregates
J. Duchesne and B. Fournier, Université Laval, Canada; J. Francoeur, Ministère des Transports, Canada

273
Alkali reactive carbonate rocks: is it alkali silica reaction (ASR) or alkali carbonate reaction (ACR)?
M.A. Beyene, SES Group & Associates, USA; R.C. Meininger, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, USA

281
Pore structure and thermal analysis of hardened cement paste incorporating graphene oxide during carbonation
W-J Long, Y. Gu, T-H Ye and N-X Han, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Durability for Marine Civil Engineering, Shenzhen Durability Center for Civil Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China

289 (i)
The influence of waste glass powder on the chloride binding capacity of fly ash/cement hardened paste
J.H. Yan, Beijing University of Technology, China; T.Y. Hao, MCC Central Research Institute of Building and Construction, China

290
The effect of calcium nitrate on the hydration of calcium aluminate cement at different curing temperatures
H. Wang, G. Diao and G. Liu, China Building Materials Academy, China; H. Wang, State Key Laboratory of Green Building Materials, China; L. Gao, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; G. Liu, Kaifeng Qiming Refractory Materials Co. Ltd, China

295
Absorption, porosity, capillarity and chloride diffusion in ultra high performance concretes
J.M. Gandía-Romero, J.E. Ramón-Zamora and I. Gasch, M. Valcuende, V. Calvet and R. Calabuig, P. Serna, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain

303
New model for natural carbonation prediction in reinforced concrete – concept and validation on chemical admixtures
S.O. Ekolu and M. Raats, University of the Johannesburg, South Africa

309
Effect of mix parameters on strength of geopolymer mortars - experimental study
A. Naghizadeh and S.O. Ekolu, University of the Johannesburg, South Africa

315

Performance in Service Environment



Climate resilient concrete structures in marine environment of Bangladesh
S. Srinivasan and I. Gibb, Mott MacDonald Limited, UK

321
Effect of chloride exposure condition on the performance of concretes containing PFA
P. C. Ryan, University College Cork, Ireland; A. J. O'Connor, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland

337
Influence of exposure environments on the durability of slag blended cements
J.O. Ukpata, P.A.M. Basheer and L. Black, University of Leeds, UK

345
Environmental factors influencing the durability of concrete structures in maine environments
H.R. Wu, F.J. Zhang, Y. Wang and X.W. Ma, Henan University of Urban Construction, China; L.B. Jin, Henan University of Technology, P.R.China

353
Influence of cracks on the carbonation resistance of concrete structures
A.AL-Ameeri, University of Brighton, UK, and University of Babylon, Iraq; M. I. Rafiq and O.Tsioulou,
University of Brighton, UK

358
Experimental and numerical investigation on the irregularity of carbonation depth of concrete under supercritical condition
H. Bao, M. Yu, J. Ye, L. Xu and Y. Chi, Wuhan University, China; J. Ye, Lancaster University, UK

367
Interactions between reinforcement corrosion and chloride ion diffusion in mortar
C. Chen, Y. Chuang, C. Wu and C. Hsu, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan

376
Sustainable concrete with seawater and corrosion resistant reinforcement: results of monitoring of corrosion behaviour
E. Redaelli, M. Carsana, F. Lollini, M. Gastaldi and F.T. Isfahani, Politecnico di Milano, Italy

382
Effect of corrosion and corrosion rate on the mechanical performance of carbon and stainless steel reinforcing bars
H.L. Wang, X.Y. Sun and H.T. Kong, Zhejiang University, China

390
Investigation on the influence of concrete pores on steel corrosion process
X. Zhang and Y. Zhao, Zhejiang University, China

395
Freeze-thaw resistance of concrete:  insight from microstructural properties
S. Adu-Amankwah and L. Black, University of Leeds, UK; M. Zajac, J. Skocek and M. Ben Haha,
Heidelberg Technology Center GmbH, Germany

402
Sulfate resistance study of carbonated low-calcium silicate systems
R. Tokpatayeva and J. Olek Lyles, Purdue University, USA; J. Jain, A. Seth and N. DeCristofaro,
Solidia Technologies Inc., USA

408
The TSA degradation process within cement-based materials in the electrical field environment
C. Wang, Z. Fang and Y. Luo, Chongqing University, China

421
Study on accelerated microbial corrosion of concrete by artificially intensified sewage
L.J. Kong, M.F. Cao, H. Lu and H.R. Lu, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; X.M. Zhou and G. Kastiukas, Brunel University, UK

428
Emerging rapid aggregate and concrete test methods for formulating ASR-resistant concrete
K.W. Liu and A.K. Mukhopadhyay, Texas A&M University, USA

438

Performance of anaerobic digestion systems:  a review

D.A. Thompson, S. Nanukuttan and D. McPolin, Queen’s University Belfast, UK

444
Influence of surface retarders on texture profile and  durability of upper layer of exposed aggregate concrete pavement
M. Dąbrowski, M.A. Glinicki, K. Gibas, A. Antolik and K. Dziedzic, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland

451
Electrochemical behaviour of passive layers in weathered reinforced mortars
B. Díaz, B. Guitián, X.R. Nóvoa and M.C. Pérez, University of Vigo, Spain

457
Effect of external loading on durability properties of pre-stressed concrete girders with microcracking
S.S. Srinivasan, M. Rung, and R.D. Ferron, The University of Texas at Austin, USA

465
Drying shrinkage of hardened cement paste and its relationship to the microstructure
X. Wang, C. Wan, X. Zhang and H. Chen, Chongqing University, China

476
Effect of corrosion on the shear transfer behavior of stud shear connectors
W. Xue, J. Chen1, A-Y Jiang and W-L Jin, Zhejiang University, China; 1Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, China

483
Effect of multi- steel bolt anchorages on composite beams
H.F Shi, D.W Zhang and W.L Jin, ZheJiang University, China; Tamon Ueda, Hokkaido University, Japan

491
Load-bearing capacity of corroded reinforced concrete structures caused by carbonation and exposed to XC4
E. Sistonen, Aalto University, Finland

496



Mechanical and Microstructure Characteristics of Concrete-Mixtures Designed for Durability of RC-Structures in Corrosive Environments
S.A. Alghamdi, S. Ahmad and M.M. Khaled, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, KSA



502
(i-vii)
Performance of High-volume Fly Ash Self-compacting Concrete Exposed to External Sulfate Attack
T. S. al-Attar, University of Technology, Iraq, A. A. Taha, Ministry of Health and Environment, Iraq

502
(viii-xiii)

Experimental and Numerical study of Macro-cell Corrosion between Crossed Steel Bars
Z. Dong, X.L. Gu and Z.H. Jin, Key Laboratory of Performance Evolution and Control for Engineering Structures, Ministry of Education, College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China

502 (xiv- xx)
Durability of cement-based materials in drinking water storage
M. Schwotzer, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG), Germany;
A. Gerdes, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG), Germany, and University of Applied Sciences Karlsruhe, Germany

503


Testing, Inspection and Monitoring

Using long-term outdoor exposure data to benchmark accelerated durability test methods
R. D. Hooton, University of Toronto, Canada

509
Diagnosis on expansion of heat-cured precast concrete blocks due to delayed ettringite formation in Japan
Y. Kawabata, Port and Airport Research Institute, Japan

516
Design of an in situ steady-state permeability test to determine the air permeability of covercrete
K. Yang and P.A.M. Basheer, University of Leeds, UK; A.E. Long and S. Nanukuttan, Queen’s University Belfast, UK; C. Yang, Chongqing University, China; Y. Wang, Shenzhen University, China; S. Mu,
Jiangsu Sobute New Materials Co., Ltd, China

525
Self-sensing and self-healing ‘smart’ cement-based materials – a review of the state of the art
D.K. Mishra, KMBB College of Engineering and Technology, India; J. Yu and C.K.Y. Leung, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China

532
Development of engineered cementitious composites with conductive inclusions for use in self-sensing applications
B. Suryanto, D. Saraireh, S. Walls, J. Kim and W.J. McCarter, Heriot-Watt University, UK

549
Influence of pore structure on relative chloride diffusion coefficient in unsaturated cementitious materials
Y. Zhang and G. YeDelft University of Technology, The Netherlands

556
Investigation of microstructure of cementitious material exposed to high temperature by non-destructive integrated CT-XRD method
TMikami, H. Takahashi and T. Sugiyama, Hokkaido University, Japan

562
Pore characteristics and computed permeability of pastes subject to freeze-thaw cycles at very early ages by X-ray CT
Y. Wei, Z. Wu and X. Gao, Tsinghua University, China

566
Meso-scale study of water transport in mortar influenced by sodium chloride and freeze-thaw cycles
Y. Wang and J. Deng, Guangdong University of Technology, China; T. Ueda and Z. Wang, Hokkaido University, Japan; D. Zhang, Zhejiang University, China

572
An investigation on moisture and water absorption in cement paste with electrical resistance method
M. Mizoguchi, T. Kitagawa, T. Daungwilailuk, Y. Ogawa and K. Kawai, Hiroshima University,  Japan

581
Will blended-cement systems with similar chloride penetration potentials resist similarly to corrosion?
W. Wilson, V. Labattaglia and A. Tagnit-Hamou, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada; L. Sorelli,
Université Laval, Canada

587
An experimental study of concrete resistivity and the effects of electrode configuration and current frequency on measurement
H. Oleiwi1,3, Y.Wang1, N. Xiang1,4, L. Augusthus-Nelson1, X. Chen2 and I. Shabalin11University of Salford, UK
2Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd, Canada; 3 University of Thi-Qar, Nasiriyah, Iraq; 4Chongqing Jiaotong University, China

592
Micro-mechanical analysis of corrosion products formed during long-term carbonation induced corrosion of steel
M. Serdar and D. Bjegović, University of Zagreb, Croatia; V. L’Hostis and S. Poyet, Université Paris-Saclay, Croatia ; D. Féron, Université Paris-Saclay, France

600
Similarity analysis of rebar corrosion under different electrochemical accelerated method
C. Fu, J. Chen and X. Jin, Zhejiang University of Technology, China; H. Ye, The University of Hong Kong, China; Jun Zhu, Zhejiang University of Technology, China

606
Integrated sensor network for monitoring steel corrosion in concrete structures
J.E. Ramón, J.M. Gandía-Romero, R. Bataller, A. Martínez-Ibernón, I. Gasch and J. Soto, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain


615
Damage evaluation of full-Scale RC slab by ultrasonic tomography
H. Hayashida, Civil Engineering Research Institute for Cold Region, Japan; T. Ueda, Hokkaido University, Japan

620
Experimental investigation on capillary water absorption in discrete planar cracks
L. Wang and J. Bao, Dalian University of Technology, China

627

Method of Improving the Durability

Surface treatments for concrete under physical salt attack
M.R. Sakr1,2 and M.T. Bassuoni11University of Manitoba, Canada; 2Benha University, Egypt

633
Development of a new method to reduce drying shrinkage of concrete by applying urea
K. Shirayama, H. Fujiwara, M. Maruoka and L. Lingling, Utsunomiya University, Japan

641
Field and laboratory investigations on the use of fly ash and li-based admixtures to prevent ASR in concrete
B. Fournier, Université Laval, Canada; A. Bilodeau, N. Bouzoubaa, P-C. Nkinamubanzi, National Research Council of Canada, Canada

650
Performance oriented functionalisation of concrete: an integrated approach for prevention in construction
A. Gerdes1,2, M. Schwotzerand J. Süßmuth31Institute of Functional Interfaces, Germany; 2University of Applied Sciences Karlsruhe, Germany; 3IONYS AG, Germany

661
Improving the spacer-concrete interface for bond strength and durability
F. Muslim, H.S. Wong and N.R. Buenfeld, Imperial College London, UK

669
Study on the performance of new imidazoline electromigration inhibitor in reinforced concrete
C. Pan1, C. Yang1, J. Mao1 and W. Jin1,21Zhejiang University, China; 2Zhejiang University, China

676
A novel methodology of powder-based cementitious materials in 3D inkjet printing for construction applications
P. Shakor, S. Nejadi and G. Paul, University of Technology Sydney, Australia; J. Sanjayan, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia

685
Experimental investigation on the ICCP-SS technique for sea-sand RC beams
H-S. Liang, J-H. Zhu, F. Xing, Z-W. Zeng, Shenzhen University, China; M-N. Su, University of Manchester, UK; T. Ueda and L-L. Wei, Hokkaido University, Japan

696
Characterization of vibration effects on the internal structure and strength of regular and high strength recycled concrete
J. Smith, R. Rampit and R. Parey, University of the West Indies,Trinidad and Tobago

703
Transport properties of steam curing concrete using mineral admixtures
K. Sasaki and THarada, Nagasaki University, Japan; TKatayama, Yamau Co. Ltd., Japan

711
Improvements of the carbonation resistance of concrete after steam autoclave curing
GLiJYue and FYao, China University of Mining and Technology, China

717

Repair and Maintenance

Monitoring historic concrete and associated cementitious repair- a case study of Boathouse 4, Portsmouth Historic Dockyard, UK
A.H. Alwaal, S. Barnett, R. Inkpen and L. Hastewell, University of Portsmouth, UK

723
Comparison data between hybrid and galvanic anode installation in the Arousa Island Bridge
J.A. Becerra-Mosquera, Neto Ingeniería, Spain;  D. Carro-López, Universidade Da Coruña, Spain; 
J.E. Pardo Landrove, Xunta de Galicia, Spain; J.M. Millán Pérez, Galaicontrol, Spain

729
Efficiency of electrochemical chloride removal from concrete at different environmental temperatures
S. Jin, J. Xia and W-L. Jin, Zhejiang University, China; Z-Y. Yu and J-Y. Hu, Zhejiang Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, China; Q. Lyu, Southeast University, China; X. Zhong, Yangzhou University, China

736
Mortar quality assessment for an iconic building repair in Sydney Australia
I. Dumitru and T. Song, Boral Construction Materials, Australia; J. Sury, Parex Group Pty Limited, Australia;
T. Wenzel, Freyssinet, Singapore

743
Distribution of lithium nitrite injected into concrete and its ASR suppression effect
K. Kobayashi and K. Rokugo, Gifu University, Japan; Y. Takagi, Nishimatsu Const. Co. Ltd., Japan;
T. Otani, Hanshin Expressway Co. Ltd, Japan

749
A “double-multi” model for electromigration of lithiums and chlorides in ASR affected concrete
Q.F. Liu, L.X. Mao and Z. Hu, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration (CISSE), China; J. Xia, Zhejiang University, China; G.L. Feng and L.Y. Li, University of Plymouth, UK

755
Rehabilitation of low rise RCC structure along 9m high retaining wall
A. Nakhawa, Non Destructive Testing and Rehabilitation Experts, India; V.B. Deshmukh and V.J.T.I. Matunga, Mumbai, India

762

Durability and Service Life Modelling

Modelling of capillary pore structure evolution in portland cement pastes based on irregular-shaped cement particles
C. Liu, M. Zhang, G. Fang and Yun Bai, University College London, UK; Y. Zhang, Southeast University, China

771
Pore structure characterization and transport performance
Simulation of cement hydration based on irregular particles
Z. Liu, W. Chen and H. Lv, China University of Mining and Technology, China; Y. Zhang, Southeast University, China; C. Liu, University College London, UK

781
Effect of time-dependent chloride profile and temperature variation on chloride diffusion in concrete
F. Alsheet and A.G. Razaqpur, McMaster University, Canada

788
Estimating fractal dimension of cement matrix for predicting chloride ingress into cement-based materials
Y. Elakneswaran, S. Yoshida A. Hatanaka and T. Nawa, Hokkaido University, Japan

795
Residual service life estimation and its importance for pretensioned concrete (PTC) bridges in coastal cities
D. Joseline, D. Kamde, S. Rengaraju and R. G. Pillai, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India

800
An image-based local homogenization method to model mass transport at the steel-concrete interface  
Z. Zhang, U. Angst, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; A. Michel, M. Jensen, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

807
A new model for corrosion-induced concrete cracking
X. Xi, S. Yang, University of Strathclyde, UK; C. Li, RMIT University, Australia

815
Meso-scale fracture modelling of concrete cover induced by non-uniform corrosion of reinforcing bar
X. Xi, S. Yang, University of Strathclyde, UK; C. Li, RMIT University, Australia

822
Establishment of a numerical model for sulfate attacked concrete considering multi-factors
S.S. Qin, D.J. Zou, J. Jiang, T.J. Liu, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.R. China

829
FEM analysis of structural behaviour of reinforced concrete beam under the effect of frost damage
Z. Wang, T. Ueda, Hokkaido University, Japan; H. Hayashida, Civil Engineering Research Institute for Cold Region, Japan; D. Zhang, Zhejiang University, China

836
A novel multiscale modelling approach for evaluation of the ASR in concrete structures
M. Jalal, M. Mirsayar and A.K. Mukhopadhyay, Texas A&M University, USA

844
Social dimensions in sustainability evaluation of deteriorating reinforced concrete bridges
Z. Wang, W. Jin, K. Wu, Zhejiang University, China; D.M. Frangopol, Lehigh University, USA

851


Design for Durability and Service Life

Durability design based on serviceability stage for corroded reinforced concrete structures
X.P. Zhong, J. Zhu and C.B.Yuan, Yangzhou University, China; W.L. Jin and J. Xia, Zhejiang University, China

859
Durability design of segmental linings for intended service life of tunnels
M. Bakhshi, V. Nasri, AECOM, USA

866
First principles-based design of economical ultra-high performance concrete
A.Arora, M. Aguayo, F. Kianmofrad, Y. Yao, B. Mobasher, N.Neithalath, Arizona State University, USA

877



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